Research

This page contains the research studies supporting strategies to boost your brain health. Check under the headings for scientific articles referenced on each page.

Neuroplasticity

  1. Kempermann, G. (2006). Adult Neurogenesis, Oxford University Press.
  2. Spalding, K. L., Bergmann, O., Alkass, K., Bernard, S., Salehpour, M., Huttner, H. B., Bostrom, E., Westerlund, I., Vial, C., Buchholz, B. A., Possnert, G., Mash, D. C., Druid, H. & Frisen, J. (2013). Dynamics of hippocampal neurogenesis in adult humans. Cell, 153(6), 1219-1227.
  3. Malenka, R. C. & Bear, M. F. (2004). LTP and LTD: An embarrassment of riches. Neuron, 44, 5-21.
  4. Song, I. & Huganir, R. L. (2002). Regulation of AMPA receptors during synaptic plasticity. Trends in Neurosciences, 25(11), 578-588.
  5. Naka, F., Narita, N., Okado, N. & Narita, M. (2005). Modification of AMPA receptor properties following environmental enrichment. Brain Dev, 27(4), 275-278.
  6. Valenzuela, M. (2011). Maintain Your Brain, ABC Books: Sydney.
  7. Draganski, B., Gaser, C., Busch, V., Schuierer, G., Bogdahn, U. & May, A. (2004). Neuroplasticity: changes in grey matter induced by training. Nature, 427(6972), 311-312.

Mental Activity

  1. Kempermann, G. (2006). Adult Neurogenesis, Oxford University Press.
  2. Valenzuela, M. (2011). Maintain Your Brain, ABC Books: Sydney.
  3. Draganski, B., Gaser, C., Busch, V., Schuierer, G., Bogdahn, U. & May, A. (2004). Neuroplasticity: changes in grey matter induced by training. Nature, 427(6972), 311-312.
  4. Valenzuela, M., Sachdev, P., Wen, W., Chen, X. & Brodaty, H. (2008). Lifespan mental activity predicts diminished rate of hippocampal atrophy. PLoS One, 3(7),
  5. Willis, S. L., Tennstedt, S. L., Marsiske, M., Ball, K., Elias, J., Koepke, K. M., Morris, J. N., Rebok, G. W., Unverzaqt, F. W., Stoddard, A. M. & Wright, E. (2006). Long-term effects of cognitive training on everyday functional outcomes in older adults. JAMA, 296(23), 2805-2814.
  6. Driemeyer, J., Boyke, J., Gaser, C., Buchel, C. & May, A. (2008). Changes in gray matter induced by learning- revisited. PLoS One, 3(7),
  7. Li, P., Legault, J. & Litcofsky, K. A. (2014). Neuroplasticity as a function of second language learning: Anatomical changes in the human brain. Cortex, 58, 301-324.
  8. Lewis, N. A., Turiano, N. A., Payne, B. R. & Hill, P. L. (2016). Purpose in life and cognitive functioning in adulthood. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, DOI: 10.1080/13825585.2016.1251549.
  9. Boyle, P. A., Buchman, A. S., Wilson, R. S., Yu, L., Schneider, J. A. & Bennett, D. A. (2012). Effect of purpose in life on the relation between Alzheimer disease pathologic changes on cognitive function in advanced age. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 69(5), 499-505.
  10. Rosenzweig, M. R., Krech, D., Bennett, E. L. & Diamond, M. C. (1962). Effects of environmental complexity and training on brain chemistry and anatomy: a replication and extension. J Comp Physiol Psychol, 55(4), 429-437.

Physical Activity

  1. Erickson, K. I., Voss, M. W., Prakash, R. S., Basak, C., Szabo, A., Chaddock, L., Kim, J. S., Heo, S., Alves, H., White, S. M., Wojcicki, T. R., Mailey, E., Vieira, V. J., Martin, S. A., Pence, B. D., Woods, J. A., McAuley, E. & Kramer, A. F. (2011). Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 108(7), 3017-3022.
  2. Suo, C., Fiatarone Singh, M., Gates, N., Wen, W., Sachdev, P., Brodaty, H., Saigal (Jain), N., Wilson, G., Meiklejohn, J., Singh, N., Baker, M., Foroughi, N., Wang, Y., Mavros, Y., Lampit, A., Leung, I., Valenzuela, M., et al (2016). Therapeutically relevant structural and functional mechanisms triggered by physical and cognitive exercise. Molecular Psychiatry, 21(11), 1633-1642.
  3. Fabel, K., Fabel, K., Tam, B., Kaufer, D., Baiker, A., Simmons, N., Kuo, C. J. & Palmer, T. D. (2003). VEGF is necessary for exercise-induced adult hippocampal neurogenesis. European Journal of Neuroscience, 18, 2803-2812.
  4. Cotman, C., Berchtold, N. & Christie, L. (2007). Exercise builds brain health: Key roles of growth factor cascades and inflammation. Trends in Neuroscience, 30, 464-471.
  5. Valenzuela, M. (2011). Maintain Your Brain, ABC Books: Sydney.

Prevent Dementia

  1. World Health Organization, April 2017. 10 Facts on Dementia. http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/dementia/en/ Retrieved 10 July 2017.
  2. The Economic Cost of Dementia in Australia 2016-2056. NATSEM 2017
  3. Australian Bureau of Statistics, September 2016. Dementia deaths continue to rise as population ages. http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/by%20Subject/3303.0~2015~Media%20Release~Dementia%20deaths%20continue%20to%20rise%20as%20population%20ages%20(Media%20Release)~10 Retrieved 10 July 2017.
  4. Valenzuela, M. (2011). Maintain Your Brain, ABC Books: Sydney.
  5. Clare, L., Linden, D. E., Woods, R. T., Whitaker, R., Evans, S. J., Parkinson, C. H., van Paasschen, J., Nelis, S. M., Hoare, Z., Yuen, K. S. & Rugg, M. D. (2010). Goal-oriented cognitive rehabilitation for people with early-stage Alzheimer disease: a single-blind randomized controlled trial of clinical efficacy. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry, 5, 928-939.
  6. Hill, N. T. M., Mowszowski, L., Naismith, S. L., Chadwick, V. L., Valenzuela, M. & Lampit, A. (2017). Computerized cognitive training in older adults with mild cognitive impairment or dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 174(4), 329-340.
  7. Verghese, J., Lipton, R. B., Katz, M. J., Hall, C. B., Derby, C. A., Kuslansky, G., Ambrose, A. F., Sliwinski, M. & Buschke, H. (2003). Leisure activities and the risk of dementia in the elderly. The New England Journal of Medicine, 348, 2508-2516.
  8. Lautenschlager, N. T., Cox, K. L., Flicker, L., Koster, J. K., van Bockxmeer, F. M., Xiao, J., Greenop, K. R. & Almeida, O. P. (2008). Effect of physical activity on cognitive function in older adults at risk for Alzheimer Disease. JAMA, 300(9), 1027-1037.